Quantitative consumer interviews were conducted by Harris Interactive between 27 November and 8 December 2020 in 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. In total, 14,200 individuals were interviewed online (CAWI method). These individuals aged 18 to 75 were drawn from national samples representative of each country. The quota method was employed to ensure that the sample was representative (gender, age, region of residence, socioprofessional category/income). 3,000 interviews were conducted in France and 800 in each of the other countries.

Country codes: Austria (AT), Belgium (BE), Bulgaria (BG), Czech Republic (CZ), France (FR), Germany (DE), Hungary (HU), Italy (IT), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Romania (RO), Slovakia (SK), Spain (ES), Sweden (SW) and United Kingdom (UK).

A qualitative survey – from which the verbatim accounts quoted in the survey were extracted – was performed to complement the study in France. Three focus groups (held using Teams) centring on the increasingly widespread use of contactless practices as a result of the health crisis were organized by Harris Interactive on 7-8 October 2020.


Co-written by: Luc Charbonnier and C-Ways
Editorial coordination: Patricia Bosc
Design: © Altavia Cosmic
Illustrations: Altavia Cosmic, Shutterstock